[ | smalltalk dot org ].
Community and industry meet inventing the future.
The Early History Of Smalltalk by Alan Kay
Abstract TOC Introduction Section I II III IV V VI
For References & Appendixes see pdf or book versions.

IV. 1972-76--The first real Smalltalk (-72), its birth, applications, and improvements

In Sept. within a few weeks of each other, two bets happened that changed most of my plans. First, Butler and Chuck came over and asked: "Do you have any money?" I said, "Yes, about $230K for NOVAs and CGs. Why?" They said, "How would you like us to build your little machine for you?" I said, "I'd like it fine. What is it?" Butler said: "I want a '$500 PDP-10', Chuck wants a '10 times faster NOVA', and you want a 'kiddicomp'. What do you need on it?" I told them most of the results we had gotten from the fonts, painting, resolution, animation, and music studies. I aksed where this had come from all of a sudden and Butler told me that they wanted to do it anyway, that Executive "X" was away for a few months on a "task force" so maybe they could "Sneak it in", and that Chuck had a bet with Bill Vitic that he could do a whole machine in just 3 months. "Oh," I said.

The second bet had even more surprising results. I had expected that the new Smalltalk would be an iconic language and would take at least two years to invent, but fate intervened. One day, in a typical PARC hallway bullsession, Ted Kaeh;er, Dan Ingalls, and I were standing around talking about programming languages. The subject pf power came up and the two of them wondered how large a language one would have to make to get great power. With as much panache as I could muster, I asserted that you could define the "most powerful language in the world" in "a page of code." They said, "Put up or shut up."

Ted went back to CMU but Can was still around egging me on. For the next two weeks I got to PARC every morning at four o'clock and worked on the problem until eight, when Dan, joined by Henry Fuchs, John Shoch, and Steve Prcell shoed up to kibbitz the mroning's work.

I had orignally made the boast because McCarthy's self-describing LISP interpreter was written in itself. It was about "a page", and as far as power goes, LISP was the whole nine-yards for functional languages. I was quite sure I could do the same for object-oriented languages plus be able to do a resonable syntax for the code a loa some of the FLEX machine techiques.

It turned out to be more difficult than I had first thought for three reasons. First, I wanted the program to be more like McCarthy's second non-recursive interpreter--the one implemented as a loop that tried to resemble the original 709 implementation of Steve Russell as much as possible. It was more "real". Second, the intertwining of the "parsing" with message receipt--the evaluation of paremters which was handled separately in LISP--required that my object-oriented interpreter re-enter itself "sooner" (in fact, much sooner) than LISP required. And, finally, I was still not clear how send and receive should work with each other.

The first few versions had flaws tha wee soundly criticized by the group. But by morning 8 or so, a version appeared that seemed to work (see Appendix III for a sketch of how the interpreter was designed). The major differences from the official Smalltalk-72 of a little bit later were that in the first version symbols were byte-coded and the reeiving of return of return-values from a send was symmetric--i.e. reciept could be like parameter binding--this was particular useful for the return of multiple values. for various reasons, this was abandoned in favor of a more expression-oriented functional return style.

Of course, I had gone to considerable pains to avoid doing any "real work" for the bet, but I felt I had proved my point. This had been an interesting holiday from our official "iconic programming" pursuits, and I thought that would be the end of it. Much to my surprise, ionly a few ays later, Dan Ingalls shoed me the scheme working on the NOVA. He had coded it up (in BASIC!), added a lot of details, such as a token scanner, a list maker, etc., and there it was--running. As he liked to say: "You just do it and it's done."

It evaluted 3 = 4 v e r y s l o w l y (it was "glacial", as Butler liked to say) but the answer alwas came out 7. Well, there was nothing to do but keep going. Dan loved to bootstrap on a system that "always ran," and over the next ten years he made at least 80 major releases of various flavors of Smalltalk.

In November, I presented these ideas and a demonstration of the interpretation scheme to the MIT AI lab. This eventuall led to Carl Hewitt's more formal "Actor" approach [Hewitt 73]. In the first Actor paper the resemblence to Smalltalk is at its closest. The paths later diverged, partly because we were much more interested in making things than theorizing, and partly because we had something no one else had: Chuck Thacker's Interim Dynabook (later known as the "ALTO").

Just before Check started work on the machine I gave a paper to the National Council of Teachers of English [Kay 72c] on the Dynabook and its potential as a learning and thinking amplifier--the paper was an extensive rotogravure of "20 things to do with a Dynabook" [Kay 72c]. By the time I got back from Minnesota, Stewart Brand's Rolling Stone article about PARC [Brand 1972] and the surrounding hacker community had hit the stands. To our enormous surprise it caused a major furor at Xerox headquarters in STamford, Connectitcut. Though it was a wonderful article that really caught the spirit of the whole culture, Xerox went berserk, forced us to wear badges (over the years many were printed on t-shirts), and severely restricted the kinds of publications that could be made. This was particular disastrous for LRG, since we were the "lunatic fringe" (so-called by the other computer scientists), were planning to go out to the schools, and needed to share our ideas (and programs) with our colleagues such as Seymour Papert and Don Norman.

Executive "X" apparently heard some harsh words at Stamford about us, because when he returned around Christmas and found out about the interim Dynabook, he got even more angry and tried to kill it. Butler wound up writing a masterful defence of the machine to hold him off, and he went back to his "task force."

Check had started his "bet" on November 22, 1972. He and two tecnicians did all of the machine except for the disk interface which was done by Ed McCreight. It had a ~500,000 pixel (606x808) bitmap display, its microcode instruction rate was about 6 MIPS, it had a grand total of 128k, and the entire machine (exclusive of the memory) ws rendered in 160 MSI chips distributed on two cards. It ws eautiful [Thacker 1972, 1986]. One of the wonderful features of the machine was "zero-over-head" tasking. It had 16 program counters, one for each task. Condition falgs were tied to interesting events (such as "horizontal retrace pulse", and "disk sector pulse", etc.). Lookaside logic scanned the flags while the current instruction was executing and picked the highes prioritity program counter to fetch from next. The machine never had to wait, and the reuslt was that most hardware functions (particularly those that involved i/o (like feeding the display and handling the disk) could be replaced by microcode. Even the refresh of the MOS dynamic RAM was done by a task. In other words, this was a coroutine architecture. Check claimed that he got the idea from a lecture I had given on coroutines a few months before, but I remembered that Wes Clark's TX-2 (the Sketchpad machine) had used the idea first, and I probably mentioned that in the talk.

In early April, just a little over three months fromthe start, the first Interim Dynabook, known as 'Bilbo,' greeted the world and we had the first bit-map picture on the screen within minutes; the Muppets' Cookie Monster that I had sketched on our painting system.

Soon Dan had bootstrapped Smalltalk across , and for many months it was the sole software sytem to run on the Interim dynabook. Appendix I has an "acknowledgements" dodcument I wrote from this time that is interesting it its allocation of credits and the various priorities associated with them. My $230K was enough to get 15 of the original projected 30 machines (over the years some 2000 Interim Dynabooks were actually built. True to Schopenhauer's observation, Executive "X" now decided that the Interim Dynabook was a good idea and he wanted all but two for his lab (I was in the other lab). I had to go to considerable lengths to get our machines back, but finally succeeded.

  1. Everything is an object
  2. Objects communicate by sending and receiving messages (in terms of objects)
  3. Objects have their own memory (in terms of objects)
  4. Every object is an instance of a class (which must be an object)
  5. The class holds the shared behavior for its instances (in the form of objects in a pogram list
  6. To eval a program list, control is passed to the first object and the remainder is treated as its message

By this time most of Smalltalk's schemes had been sorted out into six main ideas that were in accord with the initial premises in designing the interpreter. The ist three principales are what objects "are about"--how they are seen and used from "the outside." Thse did not require any modification over the years. The last three --objects from the inside--were tinkered with in every version of Smalltalk (and in subsequent OOP designs). In this scheme (1 & 4) imply that classes are objects and that they must be instances of themself. (6) implies a LiSPlike universal syntax, but with the reeiving object as the first item followed by the message. Thus ci <- de (with subscripting rendered as "o" and multiplication as "*") means:

receiver message
c o i <- d*e

The c is bound to the receiving object, and all of o i <- d*e is the message to it. The message is made up of literal token ".", an expression to be evaluated in the sender's context (in this case i), another literal token <-, followed by an expression to be evaluated in the sender's context (d*e). Since "LISP" paris are made from 2 element objets they can be indexed more simply: c hd, c tl, and c hd <- foo, etc.

"Simple" expressions like a+b and 3+4 seemed more troublesome at first. Did it really make sense to think of them as:

receiver message
a + b
3 + 4

It seemed silly if only integers were considered, but there are many other metaphoric readings of "+", such as:

"kitty" + "kat" => "kittykat"
[3 4 5 6 7 8] + 4 => [7 8 9 10 11 12]

This led to a style of finding generic behaviors for message symbols. "Polymorphism" is the official term (I believe derived from Strachey), but it is not really apt as its original meaning applied only to functions that could take more than one type of argument. An example class of objects in Smalltalk-72, such as a model of CONS pairs, would look like:

Since control is passed to the class before any of the rest of the message is considered--the class can decide not to receive at its discretion--complete protection is retained. Smalltalk-72 objects are "shiny" and impervious to attack. Part of the environment is the binding of the SENDER in the "messenger object" (a generalized activation record) which allows the receiver to determine differential provileges (see Appendix II for more details). This looked ahead to the eventualuse of Smalltalk as a network OS (See [Goldstein & Bobrow 1980]), and I don't recall it being used very much in Smalltalk-72.

One of the styles retained from Smalltalk-71 was the comingling of function and class ideas. In other works, Smalltalk-72 classes looked like and could be used as functions, but it was easy to produce an instance (a kind of closure) by using the object ISNEW. Thus factorial could be written "extensionally" as:

to fact n (^if :n=0 then 1 else n*fact n-1)

or "intensionally," as part of class integer:

(... o! * (^:n=1) * (1) (n-1)!)

Proposed Smalltalk-72 Syntax

Pair :h :t
    hd <- :h
	hd              = h
	tl <- :t
	tl              = t
	isPair          = true
	print           =  '( print. SELF mprint.
	mprint          = h print. if t isNil then ') print
                        else if t isPair then t mprint
                        else '* print. t print. ') print
	length          = 1 + if t isList then t length else 0

Of course, the whole idea of Smalltalk (and OOP in general) is to define everything intensionally. And this was the direction of movement as we learned how to progam in the new style. I never liked this syntax (too many parentheses and nestings) and wanted something flatter and more grammar-like as in Smalltalk-71. To the right is an example syntax from the notes of a talk I gave around then. We will see something more like this a few years later in Dan's design for Smalltalk-76. I think something simlar happened with LISP--that the "reality" of the straightforward and practical syntax you could program in prevailed against the flights of fancy that never quite got built.

Development of the Smalltalk-72 System and Applications

The advent of a real Smalltalk on a real machine started off an explosion of parallel paths that are too difficult to intertwine in strict historical order. Let me first present the genera development of the Smalltalk-72 system up to the transistion to Smalltalk-76, and then follow that with the several years of work with children that were the primary mnotivation for the prroject. The Smalltalk-72 interpreter on the Interim Dynabook was not exactly a zippy ("majestic" was Butler's pronouncement), but was easy to change and quite fast enough for many real-time interactive systems to be built in it.

Overlapping windows were the first project tackled (With Diana Merry) after writing the code to read the keyboard and create a string of text. Diana built an early version of a bit field block transfer (bitblt) for displaying variable pitch fonts and generally writing on the display. The first window versions were done as real 2 1/2 D draggable objects that were just a little too slow to be useful. We decided to wait until Steve Purcell got his animation system going to do it right, and opted for the style that is still in use today, which is more like a "2 1/4 D". Windows were perhaps the most redesigned and reimolemented class in Smalltalk because we didn't quite have enough compute power to just do the continual viewing to "world coordinates" and refereshgin that my former Utag colleagues were starting to experiment with on the flight simulator projects at Evans & Sutherland. This is a simple powerful model but it is difficult to do in real-time even in 2 1/2D. The first practical windows in Smalltalk used the GRAIL conventions of sensitive corners for moving, resizing, cloning, and closing. Window scheduling used a simple "loopless" control scheme that threaded all of the windows together.

One of the next classes to be implemented on the Interim Dynabook (after the basics of numbers, strings, etc.) was an object-oriented version of the LOGO turtle implemented by Ted. This could make many turtle instances that were used both for drawing and as a kind of value for graphics transformations. Dan created a class of "commander" turtles that could control a troop of turtles. Soon the tutles were made so they could be clipped by the windows.

John Shoch built a mouse-driven structured editor for Smalltalk code.

Larry Tesler (then working for POLOS) did not like the modiness and general appraoch of NLS, and he wanted both show the former NLSers an alternative and to conduct some user studies (almost unherard of in those days) about editing. This led to his programming miniMOUSE in Smalltalk, the first real WYSIWYG galley editor at PARC. It was modeless (almost) and fun to use, not just for us but for the many people he tested it on (I ran the camera for the movies we took and remember their delight and enjoyment). miniMOUSE quickly became an alternate editor for Smalltalk code and some of the best demos we ever gave used it.

One of the "small program" projects I tried on an adult class in the Spring of '74 was a one-page paragraph editor. It turned out to be too complicated, but the example I did to show them was completely modeless (it was in the air) and became the basis for much of the Smalltalk text work over the next few years. Most of the improvements were mde by Dan and Diana Merry. Of course, objects mean multi-media documents, you almost get them for free. Early on we realised that in such a document, each component object should handle its own editing chores. Steve Weyer built some of the earliest multi-media documents, whose range was greatly and variously expanded over the years by Bob Flegal, Diana Merry, Larry Tesler, Tim Mott, and Trygve Reenskaug.

Steve Weyer and I devised Findit, a "retrival by example" interface that used the analogy of classes to their instances to form retrieval requests. This was used for many years by the PARC library to control ciruculation.

The sampling synthese music I had developed on the NOVA col generate 3 high-quality real-time voices. Bob Shur and Chuck Thacker transfered the scheme to the Interim Dynabook and achieved 12 voices in real-time. The 256 bit generalized input that we had specified for low speed devices (used for the mouse and keyboard) made it easy to connect 154 more to wire up two organ keyboards and a pedal. Effects such as portamento and decay were programmed. Ted Kaehler wrote TWANG, a music capture and editing system, using a tablature notation that we devised to make music clear to children [Kay 1977a]. One of the things that was hard to do with sampling was the voltage controlled operator (VCO) effects that were popular on the "Well Tempered Synthesizer." A symmer later, Steve Saunders, another of our bright summer students, was challenged to find a way to accomplish John Chowning's very non-real-time FM synthesis in real-time on the ID. He had to find a completely different way to think of it than "FM", and succeeded brilliantly with 8 real-time voices that were integrated into TWANG [Saunders *].

Chris Jeffers (who was a musician and educator, not a computer scientist) knocked us out with OPUS, the first real-time score capturing system. Unlike most systems today it did not require metronomic playing but instead took a first pass lookng for string and weak beats (the phrasing) to establish a local model of the likely temp fluctuations and then used curve fitting and extrapolation to make judgements about just where in the measure, and for what time value, a given note had been struck.

The animmations on the NOVA ran 3-5 objects at about 2-3 frames per second. Fast enough for the phi phenomenon to work (if double buffering was used), but we wanted "Disney rates" of 10-15 frames a second for 10 or more large objects and many more smaller ones. This task was put into the engenious hands of Steve Purcell. By the fall of '73 he could demo 80 ping-pong balls and 10 flying horses running at 10 frames per second in 2 1/2D. His next task was to make the demo into a general systems facility from which we could construct animation systems. His CHAOS system started working in May '74, just in time for summer visitors Ron Baecker, Tom Horseeley, and professional animator Eric Martin to visit and build SHAZAM a marvelously capable and simple animation system based on Ron's GENESYS thesis project on the TX-2 in the late sixties [Baecker 69].

The main thesis project during this time was DAve Smith's PYGMALION [Smith 75], an essay into iconic programming (no, we hadn't quite forgotton). One progammed by showing the system how hanges should be made, much as one would illustrate on a balackboard with another programmer. This programm became the starting place from which many subsequent programming by example" systems took off.

I should say something about the size of these programs. PYGMALION was the largest program ever written in Smalltalk-72. It was about 20 pages of code--all that would fit in the interim dynabook ALTO--and is given in full in Smith s thesis. All of the other applications were smaller. For example, the SHAZAM animation system was written and revised several times in the summer of 1974, and finally woulnd up as a 5-6 page application which included its icon-controlled multiwindowed user interface.

Given its roots in simulation languages, it was easy to write in a few pages Simpula, a simple version of the SiMULA sequencing set approach to scheduling. By this time we had decided that coroutines could be more cleanly be rendered by scheduling individual methods as separate simulation phases. The generic SIMULA example was a job shop. This could be genearlized into many useful forms such as a hospital with departments of resources serving patients (see to the right). The children did not care for hosipitals but saw th they could model amusement parks, like Disneyland, their schools, the stores they and their parents shopped in, and so forth. Later this model formed the basis of the Smalltalk Sim-Kit, a high-level end-user programming enviornment (described ahead).

Many nice "computer sciency" constructs were easy to make in Smalltalk-72. For example, one of the controversies of the day was whether to have gotos or not (we didn't), and if not, how could certain very useful control strcutres--such as multiple exits from a loop--be specified? Chuck Zahn at
(until Return or Delete do
    ('character <- display <- keyboard.
    character = ret > (Return)
    character = del > (Delete)
then case
    Return: ('deal with this normal exit')
    Delete: ('handle the abnormal exit'))

SLAC proposed an event-driven case structure in which a set of events could be defined so that when an event is encountered, the loop will be exited and the event will select a statement in a cas block [Zahn 1974, Knuth 1974]. Suppose we want to write a simple loop that reads characters from the keyboard and outputs them to a display. We want it to exit normally when the <return> key is struck and with an error if the <delete> key is hit. Appendix IV shows how John Shoch defined this control structure.

The Evolution of Smalltalk-72

Smalltalk-74 (sometimes known as FastTalk) was a version of Smalltalk-72 incorporating major improvements which included providing a real "messenger" object, message dictionaries for classes (a step towards real class objects), Diana Merry's bitblt (the now famous 2D graphics operator for bitmap graphics) redesigned by Dan and implmented in microcode, and a better, more general window interface. Dave Robson while a student at UC Irvine ha dheard of our project and made a pretty good stab at implementeing an OOPL. We invited him for a summer and never let him go back--he was a great help in formulating an official semantics for Smalltalk.

The crowning addition was the OOZE (Object Oriented Zoned Environment) virtual memory system tat served Samlltalk-74, and more importantly, Smalltalk-76 [Ing 78, Kae *]. The ALTO was not ver large (128-256K), especially with its page0sized display (64k), and even with small programs, we soon ran out of storage. The 2.4 megabyte model 30 desk drive was faster and larger than a floppy and slower and smaller than today's hard drives. It was quite similar to the HP direct contact disk of the FLEX machine on which I had tried a fine-grain version of the B5000 segment swapper. It had not worked as well as I wanted, despite a few good ideas as to how to choose objects when purging. When the gang wanted to adopt this baic scheme, I said: "But I never got it to work well." I remember Ted Kaehler saying, "Dont' worry, we'll make it work!"

The basic idea in all of these systems is to be able to gather the most comprehensive possible working set of objects. This is most easily accomplished by swapping individual objects. Now the problem becomes the overhead of purging non-working set objects to make room for the ones that are needed. (Paging sometimes works better for this part because you can get more than on object (OOZE) in each disk touch.) Two ideas help a lot. First, Butler's insight in the GENTE OS that it was worthwhile to expend a small percentage of tie purging dirty objects to make core as clean as possible [Lampson 1966]. Thus crashes tend not to hurt as much and there is alwasy clean storage to fetch pages or objects from the disk into. The other is one from the FLEX system in which I set up a stochastic decision mechanism (based on the class of an object) that determined during a purge whether or not to throw an object out. This had two benefits: important objects tended not to go out, and a mistake would just bring it back in again with the distribution insuring a low probability that the object would be purged again soon.

The other problem that had to be taken care of was object-pointer integrity (and this is where I had failed in the FLEX machine to come up with a good enough solution). Wht was needed really was a complete transaction, a brand new technique (thought up by Butler?) that ensured recover regardless of when the system crashed. This was called "cosmic ray protection" as the early ALTOS had a way of just crashing once or twice a day for no discernable good reason. This, by the way did not particularly bother anyone as it was fairly easy to come up with undo anbd replay mechanisms to get around the cosmic rays. For pointer-based systems that had automatic storage management, this was a bit more tricky.

Ted and Dan decided to control storage using a Resident Object Table that was the only place machine addresses for objects would be found. Other useful information was stashed there as well to help LRU aging. Purging was done in background by picking a class, positioning the disk to its instances (all of a particular class were stored together), then running through the ROT to find the dirty ones in storage and stream them out. This was pretty efficient and, true to Butler's insight, furnished a good sized pool of clean storage that could be overwritten. The key to the design though (and the implementation of the transaction mechanism) was the checkpointing scheme they came up with. This insured that there was a recoverable image no more than a few seconds old, regardless of when a crash ight occur. OOZE swapped objects in just 80kb of working storage and could handle about 65K objects (up to several megabytes worth, more than enough for the entire system, its interface, and its applications).

"Object-oriented" Style

This is probably a good place to comment on the difference between what we thought of as OOP-style and the superficial encapsulation called "abstact data types" that was just starting to be investigated in academic circles. Our early "LISP-pair" definition is an example of an abstract data type because it preserves the "field access" and "field rebinding" that is the hallmark of a data structure. Considerable work in the 60s was concerned with generalizing such strcutures [DSP *]. The "official" computer science world started to regard Simula as a possible vehicle for defining abstract data types (even by one of its inventors [Dahl 1970]), and it formed much of the later backbone of ADA. This led to the ubiquitous stack data-type example in hundreds of papers. To put it mildly, we were quite amazed at this, since to us, what Simula had whispered was something much stringer than simply reimplementing a weak and ad hoc idea. What I got from Simula was that you could now replace bindings and assignment with goals. The last thing you wanted any programmer to do is mess with internal state even if presented figuratively. Instead, the objects should be presented as site of higher level behaviors more appropriate for use as dynamic components.

Even the way we taught children (cf. ahead) reflected this way of looking at objects. Not too surprisingly this approach has considerable bearing on the ease of programming, the size of the code needed, the integrity of the design, etc. It is unfortunate that much of what is called "object-oriented programming" today is simply old style programming with fancier constructs. Many programs are loaded with "assignment-style" operations now done by more expensive attached procedures.

Where does the special efficiency of object-oriented design come from? This is a good question given that it can be viewed as a slightly different way to apply procedures to data-structures. Part of the effect comes from a much clearer way to represent a complex system. Here, the constraints are as useful as the generalities. Four techniques used together--persistent state, polymorphism, instantiation, and methods-as-goals for the object--account for much of the power. None of these require an "object-oriented language" to be employed--ALGOL 68 can almost be turned to this style--and OOPL merely focuses the designer's mind in a particular fruitful direction. However, doing encapsulation right is a commitment not just to abstraction of state, but to eliminate state oriented metaphors from programming.

Perhaps the most important principle--again derived from operating system architectures--is that when you give someone a structure, rarely do you want them to have unlimited priviledges with it. Just doing type-matching isn't even close to what's needed. Nor is it terribly useful to have some objects protected and others not. Make them all first class citizens and protect all.

I believe that the much smaller size of a good OOP system comes not just by being gently forced to come up with a more thought out design. I think it also has to do with the "bang per line of code" you can get with OOP. The object carries with it a lot of significance and intention, its methods suggest the strongest kinds of goals it can carry out, its superclasses can add up to much more code-frunctionality being invoked than most procedures-on-data-structures. Assignment statements--even abstract ones--express very low-level goals, and more of them will be needed to get anything done. Generally, we don't want the programmer to be messing around with state, whether simulated or not. The ability to instantiate an object has a considerable effect on code size as well. Another way to think of all this is: though the late-binding of automatic storage allocations doesn't do anything a programmer can't do, its presence leads both to simpler and more powerful code. OOP is a late binding strategy for many things and all of them together hold off fragility and size explosion much longer than the older methodologies. In other words, human programmers aren't Turing machines--and the lesss their programming systems require Turing machine techniques the better.

Smalltalk and Children

Now that I have summarized the "adult" activities (we were actually only semiadults) in Smalltalk up to 1976, let me return to the summer of '73, when we were ready to start experiments with children. None of us knew anything about working with children, but we knew that Adele Goldberg and Steve Weyer who were then with Pat Suppes at Standford had done quite a bit and we were able to entice them to join us.

Since we had no idea how to teach object-oriented programming to children (or anyone else), the first experiments Adele did mimicked LOGO turtle graphics, and she got what appeared to be very similar results. That is to say, the children could get the turtle to draw pictures on the screen, but there seemed to be little happening beyond surface effects. At that time I felt that since the content of personal computering was interactive tools, that the content of this new kind of authoring literacy should be the creation of interactive tools by the children. Procedural turtle graphics just wasn't it.

The Adele came up with a breillian approach to teaching Smalltalk as an object-oriented language: the "Joe Book." I believe this was partly influneced by Minsky's idea that you should teach a programming language holistically from working examples of serious programs.

Several instances of the class box are created and sent messages, culminating with a simple multiprocess animation. After getting kids to guess what a box might be like--they could come surprisingly close--they would be shown:

to box | x y size tilt
(odraw   =    (@place x y turn tilt. square size.
oundraw  =    (@ white, SELF draw, @black)
oturn    =    (SELF undraw. 'tilt <- tilt + :. SELF draw)
ogrow    =    (SELF undraw. 'size <- size + :. SELF draw)
ISNEW    =    (SELF undraw. 'size <- size + :. SELF draw)

What was so wonderful about this idea were the myriad of children's projects that could spring off the humble boxes. And some of the earliest were tools! This was when we got really excited. For example, Marion Goldeen's (12 yrs old) painting system was a full-fledged tool. A few yuears later, so was Susan Hamet's (12 yrs old) OOP illustration system (with a design that was like the MacDraw to come). Two more were Bruce Horn's (15 yrs old) music score capture system and Steve Ptz's (15 yrs old) circuit design system. Looking back, this could be called another example in computer science of the "early success syndrome." The successes were real, but they weren't as general as we thought. They wouldn't extend into the future as stringly as we hoped. The children were chosen from the Palo Alto schools (hardly an average background) and we tended to be much more excited about the successes than the difficulties. In part, that we were seeing was the "hack phenomenon," that, for any given pursuit, a particular 5% of the population will jump into it naturally, while the 80% or so who can learn it in time do not find it at all natural.

We had a dim sense of this, but we kept on having relative successes. We could definitely see that learning the mechanics of the system was not a major problem the children could get mose of it themsleves by swarming over the ALTOS with Adele's JOE book. The problem seemed more to be that of design.

It started to hit home in the Spring of '74 after I taught Smalltalk to 20 PARC nonprogrammer adults. They were able to get through the initial material faster than the children, but just as it looked like an overwhelming success was at hand, they started to crash on problems that didn't look to me to be much harder than the ones they had just been doing well on. One of them was a project thought up by one of the adults, which was to make a little database system that could act like a card file or rolodex. They couldn't even come close to programming it. I was very surprised because I "klnew" that such a project was well below the mythical "two pages" for end-users we were working within. That night I worote it out, and the next day I showed all of them how to do it. Still, none of them were able to do it by themsleves. Later, I sat in the room poindering the board from my talk. Finally, I counted the number of nonobvious ideas in this little program. They came to 17. And some of them were like the concept of the arch in building design: very hard to discover, if you don't already know them.

The connection to literacy was painfully clear. It isn't enough to just learn to read and write. There is also a literature that renders ideas. Language is used to read and write about them, but at some point the organization of ideas starts to dominate mre language abilities. And it help greatly to have some powerful ideas under one's belt to better acquire more powerful ideas [Papert 70s]. So, we decided we should teach design. And Adele came up with another brillian stroke to deal with this. She decided that what was needed was in intermediary between the vague ideas about the problem and the very detailed writing and debugging that had to be done to get it to run in Smalltalk. She called the intermediary forms design templates.

Using these the children could look at a situation they wanted to simulate, and decompose it into classes and messages without having to worry just how a method would work. The method planning could then be done informally in English, and these notes would later serve as commentaries and guides to the writing of the actual code. This was a terrific idea, and it worked very well.

But not enough to satisfy us. As Adele liked to point out, it is hard to claim success if only some of the children are successful--and if a mximum effort of both children and teachers was required to get the successes to happen. REal pedagogy has to work in much less idealistic settings and be consderably more robust. Still, some successes are qualitatively different from no successes. We wanted more, and started to push on the inheritence idea as a way to let novices build on frameworks that could only be designed by experts. We had good reason to believe that this could work because we had been impressed by Lisa vanStone's ability to make significant changes to SHAZAM (the fix or six page Smalltalk animation tool done by relatively expert adults). Unfortunately, inerhitence--though an incredibly powerful technique--has turned out to be very difficult for novices (and even professionals) to deal with.

AT this point, let me do a look back from the vantage point of today. I'm now pretty much convinced that our design template approach was a good one after all. We just didn't apply it longitudinally enough. I mean by this that there is now a large accumulation of results from many attempts to teach novices programming [Soloway 1989]. They all have similar stories that seem to have little to do with the various features of the programming languages used, and everything to do with the difficulties novices have thinking the special way that good programmers think. Even with a much better interface than we had then (and have today), it is likely that this rea is actually more like writing than we wanted it to be. Namely, for the "80%", it really has to be learned gradually over a period of years in order to build up the structures that need to be there for design and solution look-ahead.41

The problem is not to get the kids to do stuff--they love to do, even when they are not sure exactly what they are doing. This correlates well with studies of early learning of language, when much rehearsal is done regardless of whether content is involved. Just doing seems to help. What is difficult is to detrmine what ideas to put forth and how deeply they should penetrate at a given child's developmental level. This is a confusion still persists for reading and writing of natural language--and for mathematics--despite centuries of experience. And it is the main hurdle for teaching children programming. When, in what order and depth, and how should the powerful ideas be taught?

Should we even try to teach programming? I have met hundreds of programmers in the last 30 years and can see no discernable influence of programming on their general abiltity to think well or to take an enlightened stance on human knowledge. If anything, the opposite is true. Expert knowledge often remains rooted in the environments in which it was first learned--and most metaphorical extensions result in misleading analogies. A remarkable number off artists, scientists, philosophers are quite dull outside of their specialty (and one suspects within it as well). The first siren's song we need to be wary of is the one that promises a connection between an interesting pursuit and interesting thoughts. The music is not in the piano, and it is possible to graduate Julliard wiothout finding or feeling it.

I have also met a few people for whom computing provides an important new mataphor for thinkingg about human knowledge and reach. But something else was needed besides computing for enlightenment to happen.

Tools provide a path, a context, and almost an excuse for developing enlightenment, but no tool ever contained it or can dispense it. Ceasare Pavese observed: to know the world we must construct it. In other words, we make not just to have, but to know. but the having can happen without most of the knowing taking place.

Another way to look at this is that knowledge is in it s least ineresting state when it is first being learned. the representations--whether marking, allutions, or phisical control--get in the way (almost take over as goals) and must be laboriously and painfully interpreted. From here there are several useful paths, two of which are important and intertwined.

The first is fluency, which in part is the process of building mental structures that disappear the interpretation of the representations. The letters and words of a sentence are experienced as meaning rather than markings, the tennis reaquet or keyuboard becomes an extension of one's body, and so forth. If carried further one eventually becomes a kind of expert--but without deep knwledge in other areas, attenpts to generalize are usually too crisp and ill formed.

The second path is towards taking the knowledge as a metaphor than can illuminate other areas. But without fluency it is more likely that prior knowledge will hld sway and the matphors from this side will be fuzzy and misleading.

The "trick," and I think that this is waht liberal arts educations is supposed to be about, is to get fluent and deep while building realtionships with other fluent deep knowledge. Our society has lowered its aims so far that it is happy with "increases in scores" without daring to inquire whether any important threshold has been crossed. Being able to read a warning on a pill bottle or write about a summer vacation is not literacy and our society should nbot treat it so. Literacy, for example is being able to fluently read and follow the 50 oage argument in Paine's Common Sense and being able (and happy) to fluently write a critique or defence of it. Another kind of 20th century literacy is being able to hear about a new fatal contagious incurable disease and instantly know that a disastrous exponential relationship holds and early action is of the highest priority. Another kind of literacy would take citizens to their personal computers where they can fluently and without pain build a systems simulation of the disease to use as a comparison against further information.

At the liberal arts level we would expect that connections between each of the fluencies would form truly powerful metaphors for considering ideas on the light of others.

The reason, therefore, that many of us want children to understand computing deeply and fluently is that like literature, matematics, science, music, and art, it carries special ways of thinking about situations that in contra=st with other knowledge and other wasy of thinking critically boost our ability to understand our world.

We did not know then, and I'm sorry to say from 15 years later, that these critical questions still do not yet have really useful answers. But there are some indications. Even very young children can understand and use interactive transformational tools. The first ones are their hands! The can readily extend these experiences to cimputer objects and making changes to them. They can often imagine what a proposed change will do and not be surprised at the result. Two and three year olds can use the Smalltalk-style interface and manipulate object-oriented graphics. Third graders can (in a few days) learn more than 50 features--most of these are transformational tools--of a new system includeing its user interface. They can answer any question whose answer requires the application of just one of these tools. But it is extremely difficult for them to answer any question that requires two or more transformations. Yet they have no problem applying sequenes of transformations, exploring "forward." It is for conceiving and achieving even modest goals requiring several changes that they almost completly lack navigation abilities.

It seems that what needs to be learned and taught is now to package up transformations in twos and threes in a manner similar to learning a strategic game like checkers. The vague sense of a "threesome" pointing twoards one's goal can be a set up for the more detailed work that is needed to accomplish it. This art is possible for a large percentage of the population, but for most, it will need to be learned gradually over several years.


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1993 ACM 0-89791-571-2/93/0004/0069...$1.50

The Early History Of Smalltalk by Alan Kay
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