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The Early History Of Smalltalk by Alan Kay
Abstract TOC Introduction Section I II III IV V VI
For References & Appendixes see pdf or book versions.

VI. 1980-83--The release version of Smalltalk (-80)

The greatest sin in Art is not Boredom,
as is commonly supposed, but lack of Proportion"
-- Paul Hindemith

As Dan said "the decision not to continue the NoteTaker project added motivation to release Smalltalk widely." But not for me. By this time I was both happy about the cleanliness and elegance of the Smalltalk conception as realized by Dan and theothers, and sad that it was farther away than ever from Children--it came to me as a shock that no child had programmed in any Smalltalk since Smalltalk-76 made its debut. Xerox (and PARC) were now into "workstations" as things in themselves--but I still wanted "playstations". The romance of the Dynabook seemed less within grasp, paradoxically just when the various needed technologies were starting to be commercially feasible--some of them, unfortunately, like the flat-screen display, abandoned to the Japanese by the US companies who had invented them. This was a major case of "snatching defeat from the jaws of victory." Larry Tesler decided that Xerox was never going to "get it" and was hired by Steve Jobs in May 1980 to be principal designer of the Lisa I agreed, had a sabbatical coming, and took it.

Adele decided to drive the documentation and release process for a new Smalltalk that could be distributed widely almost regardless of the target hardware. ONly a few changes had to be made to the NoteTaker Smalltalk-78 to make a releasable sysstem. Perhaps the change that was most ironic was to turn the custom fonts that made Smalltalk more readable (and were a hallmark of the entire PARC culture) back into standard pedestrian ASCII characters. According to Peter Deutsch this "met with heated opposition within the group at the time, but has turned out to be essential for the acceptance of the system in the world." Another change was to make blocks more like lambda expressions which, as Peter Deutsch was to observe nine yeas later: "In retrospect, this proliferation of different kinds of instantiations and scoping was probably a bad idea." The most puzzling strange idea--at least to me as a new outsider--was the introduction of metaclasses (really just to make instance initialization a little easier--a very minor improvement over what Smalltalk-76 did quite reasonably already). Peter's 1989 comment is typical and true: "metaclasses have proven confusing to many users, and perhaps in the balance more confusing than valuable." In fact, in their PIE system, Goldstein and Bobrow had already implemented in Smalltalk on "observer language", somewhat following the view-oriented approach Ihad been advocating and in some ways like the "perspectives" proposed in KRL [Goldstein *]. Once one can view an instance via multiple perspectives even "sem-metaclasses" like Class Class and Class Object are not really necessary since the object-role and instance-of-a-class-role are just different views and it is easy to deal with life-history issues includeding instantiation. This was there for the taking (along with quite a few other good ideas), but it wsn't adopted. My guess is that Smalltalk had moved into the final phase I memntioned at the beginning of this story, in which a way of doing things finally gets canonized into an inflexible belief structure.

Coda

One final comment. Hardware is really just software crystallized early. It is there to make program schemes run as efficiently as possible. But far too often the hardware has been presented as a given and it is up to software designers to make it appear reasonable. This has caused low-level techniques and excessive optimization to hold back progress in program design. As Bob Barton used to say: "Systems programmers are high priests of a low cult."

One way to think about progress in software is that a lot of it has been about finding ways to late-bind, then waging campaigns to convince manufacturers to build the ideas into hardware. Early hardware had wired programs and parameters; random access memory was a scheme to late-bind them. Looping and indexing used to be done by address modification in storiage; index registers were a way to late-bind. Over the years software designers have found ways to late-bind the locations of computations--this led to base/bounds registers, segment relocation, page MMUs, migratory processes, and so forth. Time-sharing was held back for years because it was "inefficient"-- but the manufacturers wouldn't put MMUs on the machines, universities had to do it themselves! Recursion late-binds parameters to procedures, but it took years to get even rudimentary stack mechanisms into CPUs. Most machines still have no support for dynamic allocation and garbage collection and so forth. In short, most hardware designs today are just re-optimizations of moribund architectures.

From the late-binding perspective, OOP an be viewed as a comprehensive technique for late-binding as many things as possible: the mix of state and process in a set of behaviors, where they are located, what they are called, when and why the are invoked, which JW is used, etc., and more subtle, the strategies used in the OOP scheme itself. The art of the wrap is the art of the trap.

Consider the two ases that must be handled efficiently in order to completely wrap objects. It would be terrible if a + b incurred any overhead if a and b were bound, say, to "3" and "4" ina form that could be handled by the ALU. The operations should occur full speed using look-aside logic (in the simplest scheme a single and gate) to trap if the operands aren't compatible with the ALU. Now all elementary operations that have to happen fast have been wrapped without slowind down the machine.

The second case happens if the trap has determined the objects in questions are too complicated for the ALU. Now the HW has to dynamically find a method that can handled the objects. This is very simiilar to indexing--the class of one of the objects is "indexed" by the desired method-selector in a slightly more general way. In other words the virtual-address of a method is <class><selector>. Since most HW today does a virtual address translation of some kind to find the real address--a trap--it is quite possible to hide the overhead of the OOP dispatch in the MMU overhead that has already been rationalized.

Again, the whole point of OOP is not to have to worry about what is inside an object. Objects made on different machines and with different languages should be able to talk to each other--and will have-to in the future. Late-binding here involves trapping incmpatibilities into recompatibility methods--a good discussion of some of the issues is found in [Popek 1984].

Staying with the metaphor of late-binding, what further late-binding schemes might we expect to see? One of the nicest late-binding schemes that is being experimented with is the metaobject protocol work at Xerox PARC [Kiczales 1991]. The notion is that the language designer's choice for the internal representation of instances, variables, etc., may not cover wht the implementer needs, so within a fixed semantics they allow the implmenter to give the system strategies--for example, using a hashed lookup for slots in an instance instead of direct indexing. These are then efficiently compiled and extend the base implemenation of the sustem. This is a direct descendant of similar directions from the past of Simula, FLEX, CDL, Smalltalk, and Actors.

Another late-binding scheme that is already necessary is to get away from directo protocol matching when a new object shows up in a system of objects. In other words, if someone sends you an object from halfway around the world it will be unusual if it conforms to your local protocols. At some point it will be easier to have it carry even more information about itself--enough so its speicifications can be "understood" and its confiugration into your mix done by the more subtle mathcing of inference.

A look beyond OOP as we know it today can also be done by thinking about late-binding. Prolog's great idea is that it doesn't need binding to values in order to carry out computations [Col **]. The variable is an object and a web of partial results can be built to be filled in when a binding is finally found. Eurisko [Lenat **] constructs its methods--and modifies its basic strategies--as it tries to solve a problem. Instead of a problem looking for methods, the methods look for problems--and Eurisko looks for the methods of the methods. This has been called "opportunistic programming"--I think of it as a drive for more enlightenment, in which problems get resolved as part of the process.

This higher computational finesse will be needed as the next paradigm shift--that of pervasive networking--takes place over the next five years. Objects will gradually become active agents and will travel the networks in search of useful information and tools for their managers. Objects brought back into a computational environment from halfway around the world will not be able to configure themselves by direct protocol matching as do objects today. Intead, the objects will carry much more informration about themselves in a form that permits inferential docking. Some of the ongoing work in specificaion can be turned to this task [Guttag **][Goguen **].

Toungue in cheek, I once characterized progress in programming languages as kind of "sunspot" theory, in which major advances took place about every 11 years. We started with machine code in 1950, then in 1956 FORTRAN came along as a "better old thing" which if looked at as "almost a new thing" became the precursor of ALGOL-60 in 1961. IN 1966, SIMULA was the "better old thing," which if looked at as "almost a new thing" became the precursor to Smalltalk in 1972.

Everything seemed set up to confirm the "theory" once more: in 1978 Eurisko was in place as the "better old thing" that was "almost a new thing". But 1983--and the whole decade--came and went without the "new thing". Of course, such a theory is silly anyway--and yet, I think the enormous commercialization of personal computering has smothered much of the kind of work that used to go on in universities and research labs, by sucking the talented kids towards practical applications. With companies so risk-adverse towards doing their own HW, and the HW companies betraying no real understanding of SW, the result has been a great step backwards in most respects.

A twentieth century problem is that technology has become too "easy". When it was hard to do anything whether good or bad, enough time was taken so that the result was usually good. Now we can make things almost trivially, especially in software, but most of the designs are trivial as well. This is inverse vandalism: the making of things because you can. Couple this to even less sophisticated buyers and you have generated an exploitation marketplace similar to that set up for teenagers. A counter to this is to generate enormous disatisfaction with one's designs using the entire history of human art as a standard and goal. Then the trick is to decouple the disatisfaction from self worth--otherwise it is either too depressing or one stops too soon with trivial results.

I will leave the story of early Smalltalk in 1981 when an extensive series of articles on Smalltalk-80 was published in Byte magazine, [Byte 1981] followed by Adele's and Dave Robsons books [Goldberg 1983] and the official release of the system in 1983. Now programmers could easily implement the virtual machine without having to reinvent it, and, in several cases, groups were able to roll their own image of basic classes. In spite of having to run almost everywhere on moribund HW architectures, Smalltalk has proliferated amazingly well (in part because of tremendous optimization efforts on these machines) [Deutsch 83]. As far as I can tell, it still seems to be the most wiidely used system that claims to be object-oriented. It is incredible to me that no one since has come up with a qualitatively better idea that is as simple, elegant, easy to program, practical, and comprehensive. (It's a pity that we didn't know about PROLOG then or vice versa, the combinations of the two languages done subsequently are quite intriguing).

While justly applauding Dan, Adele and the others that made Smalltalk possible, we must wonder at the same time: where are the Dans and the Adeles of the '80s and '90s that will take us to the next stage?

V VI

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HOPL-II/4/93/MA, USA
1993 ACM 0-89791-571-2/93/0004/0069...$1.50

The Early History Of Smalltalk by Alan Kay
Abstract TOC Introduction Section I II III IV V VI
For References & Appendixes see pdf or book versions.

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